Type 2 Diabetes- Causes and Symptoms

Nowadays, the word “Diabetes” gets echoed everywhere as it has become one of the chronic diseases humanity has ever faced. While the real cause for this fatal disease remains a mystery, change in our lifestyle exists in that list. Many types of research are on the way to treat or trying to figure out a way to cure this. But as of now, it remains elusive. Knowing the cause and early signs could better equip us better in preventing or treating type II diabetes. Let us know about it in detail. 

What is Type II Diabetes?

Diabetes is a state where the insulin fails in its desired result or the body stops producing it. Type II diabetes is one such chronic state where the body becomes resistant to insulin and inhibits its regular functioning. Sometimes, the body would produce very less insulin, thus resulting in type II diabetes (very rare). Unfortunately, type II tends to be a lifelong disease.

Typically, the food we intake gets broken down into glucose and gets absorbed by the blood. Then it is supplied to different parts of our body for energy. Excess glucose, if any gets converted into glycogen by the liver and stores it for future use. The reconversion takes place when the blood glucose level falls. It is insulin which stimulates all these actions, thus playing a significant role in glucose metabolism. It controls the glucose level in the blood.

Causes for Type II Diabetes:

There are many reasons for type II diabetes. One of the reasons is because of hereditary. If any of our ancestors were affected by this disease, the risks for us getting affected is high. Lifestyle also remains to be a potent factor. Very less physical activity, unhealthy food habits are few things which contribute to lifestyle factors. The total effect of these could result in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is nothing but the inadequate response from the muscle, cells and liver from insulin for taking up glucose.

 Thus, the blood glucose level rises. Studies show that excess visceral fat could be a significant risk factor for many deadly diseases, including type II diabetes. Experts have found a robust correlation of high abdominal fat in type-II diabetes patients. Data collected shows that excess visceral fat could produce unhealthy cytokines, paving the way for insulin resistance. Studies made in Japan emphasize the above fact and further research is underway to understand it in detail. Indeed, obesity remains a critical risk factor for type II diabetes as well.  

Symptoms: 

There are many symptoms our body starts to show on the onset of this insulin resistance. But we often ignore it, treating it as an ordinary sign. Some of the most common symptoms reported are as follows.

Repeated Urination:

Since the blood glucose rises, the kidney helps in removing by filtering it from the blood. Thus, it leads to frequent urination.

Vision gets blurred:

The blood vessels in our eyes get damaged due to excess glucose level in the blood. Thereby, the vision starts getting blurry. If not appropriately treated, permanent loss of vision could take place.

Often feeling thirsty:

Since we keep urinating frequently, the body loses water leading to dehydrated state. So, we start feeling thirsty most of the time to balance the lost water by the body.

Tiredness:

As the cells don’t get proper energy due to insulin resistance, the body doesn’t get the energy it needs.

Increase in Hunger:

As stated previously, the restricted glucose metabolism makes us feel hungry most of the time. It is evident as the cells do not get the glucose from the blood, despite the regular food intake.

Dark Patch in the Skin:

The onset of type II diabetes causes acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition where dark patches start forming at the neck or armpit.

Itchy skin:

The skin becomes itchy. Skin burn, soreness, redness occurs.

If the blood glucose level had been high for a long time, the following could occur.

Healing process gets hampered:

Blood circulation gets impaired, and the body’s nerve starts getting damaged. Therefore, a small wound takes a longer time to heal, indicating that there is something wrong.

Yeast attack:

The moist areas of our body get prone to yeast infection due to high sugar in the blood. As the urine contains excess waste, the yeast infection starts taking place in those areas.

Numbness:

Type II diabetes leads to a state called neuropathy, leading to pain and numbness in feet and hands.

The following are the risk factors which tell us that the chance for getting type II diabetes is a little high. The risk factors are as follows.

  • Heart disease
  • Low HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)
  • Being Obese
  • Less or no physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Excess triglycerides

Overview:

There are many ways to check if we have type II diabetes or not. Checking the average blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance tests are few among the diagnostic methods for diabetes. Though there are treatments like taking medicines, diet, and exercises, it is better to prevent by living a healthy lifestyle. Proper food habits, exercise plays a significant role in reducing the risk for most of the chronic disease. “Prevention is better than cure”. So, let us be aware and start taking the essential steps to safeguard us.

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